Like a lot of moms, I faced the Barbie dilemma when my daughter was younger. I solved it–ta da!–through hypocrisy and mixed messages. Ok, maybe that’s a little harsh. But I Â figured a little bit of Barbie would sate her appetite (and stop the nagging) without doing tooÂ much harm. Like a vaccination, or homeopathic innoculation against the Big Bad. I told myself my daughter didn’t use her dolls for fashion play anyway: her Barbie “funeral,” for instance, was a tour de force of childhood imagination. I told myself I only got her “good” Barbies: ethnic Barbies, Wonder Woman Barbie, Cleopatra Barbie. Now that she’s 10 and long ago gave the dolls away (or “mummified” them and buried them in the back yard in a “time capsule”), I can’t say whether they’ll have any latent impact on her body image or self-perception. It would seem ludicrous, at any rate, to try to pinpoint the impact ofÂ one toy. To me it was never about a single product anyway–not even the Princesses, though I’m often accused of thinking that–it was about the accrual of products, the conveyor belt we put girls on at ever-younger ages that tells them that how they look, first and foremost, is who they are.
But now, according to a study published this week, Â it turns out that playing with Barbie, even career Barbie, may indeed limit girlsâ€™ perception of their own future choices. Psychologists at Oregon State and the University of Santa Cruz randomly assigned girls ages 4-7 to play with one of three dolls. Two were Barbies: a fashion Barbie (in a dress and high heels);
and a “career” Barbie with a doctorâ€™s coat and stethoscope.
Â (NOTE: I just pulled these images from the web: I don’t know which Barbies or Potato Heads they used. Interestingly, though, the doctor Barbie I found on Amazon costs $35Â whereasÂ the fashionista Barbies are $11-$15. AndÂ one more note: I’m from the era when we used actual POTATOES for our Potato Head dolls, sticking them with push-pin pieces on which you could easily impale yourself–or your sibling. Those were the days, eh? Anyway, back to the topic at hand…).
Ahem. So, after just a few minutes of play, the girls were asked if they could do any of 10 occupations when they grew up. They were also asked if boys could do those jobs. Half of the careers, according to the authors, were male-dominated and half were female dominated. The results:
Girls who played with Barbie thought they could do fewer jobs than boys could do. But girls who played with Mrs. Potato Head reported nearly the same number of possible careers for themselves and for boys.
More to the point:
There was no difference in results between girls who played with a Barbie wearing a dress and the career-focused, doctor version of the doll.
Obviously, the study is not definitive. Obviously, one doll isnâ€™t going to make the critical difference in a young womanâ€™s life blah blah blah. Still, it’s interesting that it doesnâ€™t matter whether the girls played with fashion Barbie or doctor Barbie, the doll had the same effect and in only a few minutes. That reminded me of a study I wrote about in CAMD in which college women enrolled in an advanced calculus class were asked to watch a series of four, 30-second TV commercials. The first group watched four netural ads. The second group watched two neutral ads and twoÂ depicting stereotypes about women Â (a girl enraptured by acne medicine; a woman drooling over a brownie mix). Afterward they completed a survey andâ€”bing!â€”the group whoâ€™d seen the stereo- typed ads expressed less interest in math- and science-related careers than classmates who had watched only the neutral ones. Let me repeat: the effect was demonstrable after watching two ads. And guess who performed better on a math test, coeds who took it after being asked to try on a bathing suit or those who had been asked to try on a sweater? (Hint: the latter group; interestingly, male students showed no such disparity.)
Now think about the culture girls are exposed to over and over and over and over and over, whether in toys or movies or tv or music videos, in which regardless of what else you areâ€”smart, athletic, kind, even feminist, even oldâ€”you must be “hot.” Perhaps, then, the issue is not â€œwell, one doll canâ€™t have that much of an impact,â€ so much as â€œif playing with one doll for a few minutes has that much impact what is the effect of the tsunami of sexualization that girls confront every day, year after year?â€
(If Barbie were life-sized she’d beÂ 6 feet tall with a 39″ bust, 18″ waist, and 33″ hips. This representation was made by then-high school studentÂ Galia Slayen and originally fromÂ a post by Today News)